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available to anyone. The outage did not just affect consumers. Many functions of Slack, a popular tool used by organizations for inter-office communication, weren't available during that time, as well, leaving many corporations unable to communicate internally. The problem was restored as quickly as the cloud provider's engi‐ neers were able to fix it, but the affected companies fielded com‐ plaints from angry customers for days after the outage occurred. Outages like these can potentially cause millions of dollars in lost revenue. This illustrates the inherent dangers in relying on a single cloud provider for hosting your web application. Even the most reliable providers will occasionally experience outages and their outages impact your customers. A diversified cloud presence allows an organization to better weather these types of outages and it means their customers will see little to no impact. Modes of Distributing Workloads Across Multiple Cloud Providers Each type of architecture deployment has its pros and cons. Often, the type of architecture used depends on the kind of application being deployed, but it can also depend on budgetary concerns and the maturity of the organization making the deployment. None of the modes discussed in the subsections that follow are inherently better than the others. The best choice is largely depen‐ dent on an organization's specific business requirements, internal processes, and standards. Active-Active versus Active-Passive Active-active and active-passive architectures are all about ensuring HA. They're designed to ensure that customers or employees in any part of the world can access web applications quickly, with very little latency. These architectures also ensure that if one cloud provider experiences a failure, end users will not notice, because the failover will be seamless. Figure 1-1 provides a simplified example of what an active-active architecture looks like. A web application is deployed across multi‐ ple cloud providers, each with a load-balancing service enabled in Modes of Distributing Workloads Across Multiple Cloud Providers | 5

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