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Storage is an important part of the planning process, as well. Remember, these container systems are designed to be ephemeral and turned up and down as needed. Storage needs to be permanent with full redundancy and backups. Plan in advance where data will be stored and understand how the containers in each cloud provider will access that data. Finally, understand how networking will work within and between the cloud providers being used. Will the containers connect directly to the host system, or will the containers run on an internal network segment? How will the different cloud providers connect to or peer with one another? Can you create VPN access between different cloud providers on management virtual local area networks, or do you have to find another way to connect different installations? Kubernetes on Multicloud Kubernetes is the most widely adopted container-management and orchestration tool, especially when it comes to multicloud environ‐ ments. Originally developed by Google, Kubernetes is currently sup‐ ported by Google Cloud Engine, AWS, Microsoft Azure, Oracle Cloud Infrastructure, OpenStack, and a host of other cloud provid‐ ers. The key to Kubernetes is its flexibility. It allows you to deploy fully configured systems across all cloud providers in your multicloud architecture. You begin by building the various components that are necessary to run the web application. You can then cluster those components together. You then can reuse these clustered compo‐ nents across different workloads and deploy them as needed. Using the Kubernetes application programming interface (API), it is easy to quickly deploy new systems and clusters of systems to differ‐ ent cloud providers. It's also easier to deal with security patches. When a vulnerability is announced and patched, you can build and automatically deploy a new container across your entire architec‐ ture. This makes it less likely that a vulnerable system will remain exposed on the internet for long periods of time. Kubernetes is very intelligent in its management of deployed con‐ tainers. It maintains awareness of the state of each container and monitors system resources being used on each container. As previ‐ ously mentioned, you can configure Kubernetes to deploy new con‐ tainers automatically when CPU resources reach a certain threshold. 22 | Chapter 2: Multicloud Infrastructure Orchestration and Management

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