O'Reilly's Performance Optimizations in a Cloud-Centric World

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experience. This will flag any unexpected behavior and can help you drill down to identify the cause of the problem. RUM is also useful for determining whether there is a pattern to the types of users who are experiencing a particular problem. For example, is it related to a specific geographic area, type of connection, browser, or device? EUM is similar, but relies on synthetically generated, regularly repeated tests of specific functionality. EUM will quickly show if tasks are varying over time and whether key functionality is still act‐ ing as expected. EUM is valuable in that you can be proactively alerted when prob‐ lems occur without having to depend on real users executing a spe‐ cific function (and hopefully resolve issues before they are noticed). Also, because you control the way the test is executed, you can remove other variables and only run a known, repeatable test. RUM is valuable because it executes any functionality within your system that users are doing without your having to specify what that functionality is. This means that you see issues that are occurring in areas that you may not have expected. A good monitoring solution includes elements of both RUM and EUM. 2. APM Application performance management (APM) is a monitoring tech‐ nology that sits on your server and tracks all activity and reports to a central analysis server. This will collect code-level metrics (e.g., method and SQL query execution times) and details of communica‐ tions with external systems, in addition to hardware metrics (e.g., memory and CPU usage). APM systems are very useful for getting a detailed understanding of what your application is doing under the hood, and they're a good starting point for root-cause analysis of issues with your system. Some APM solutions will integrate with RUM and EUM tools to give a full end-to-end breakdown of a user's interaction with your system. 14 | Chapter 2: If You Can't Control It, Monitor It

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