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Internet Performance for Dummies

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8 Internet Performance For Dummies, Dyn Special Edition These materials are © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Any dissemination, distribution, or unauthorized use is strictly prohibited. ARPANET In the 1960s, the U.S. Department of Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) developed ARPANET, the first network to use packet‐switching technology. A packet‐switching network breaks data into small blocks, or packets, and then transmits each individual packet from node‐to‐node toward its destination. The individual packets are then reassembled in the correct order at the destination, thereby enabling a resilient, multipath communications net- work instead of a single, end‐to‐end communication path. By the end of 1969, a total of four computers were connected to ARPANET. The challenge of connecting different computers around the world in a single network would remain unrealized for another decade. In the late 1970s, Stanford computer sci- entist Vinton Cerf created the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and, later, the Internet Protocol (IP). TCP/IP enabled ARPANET and several other networks around the world to be successfully connected, collectively becoming known as the Internet in the late 1980s. That is the way the Internet still works today. It is as simple as that. This means that anyone can create information and exchange information on how the Internet connects. The World Wide Web In 1989, Tim Berners‐Lee, a CERN physicist and computer sci- entist, envisioned a web of information — consisting of a large database with links to other electronic documents — that could be shared on the Internet and, in 1991, the World Wide Web was born. Later, Berners‐Lee founded the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). He no longer works for CERN, but in 2004 he was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II and became Sir Tim Berners‐Lee. Although the terms Internet and World Wide Web are popu- larly used interchangeably, they're not the same thing. Technically, the Internet is a vast, global system of billions of interconnected devices and networks. The World Wide Web is a series of protocols — most notably, Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), and

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